The axillary artery begins at the lateral border of the first rib as a continuation of the subclavian artery . It changes its name to brachial artery at lower (inferior) border of the teres major muscle. For purposes of description, it is broken up into three parts by its relation to the pectoralis minor muscle. The first part is between the lateral border of the first rib and the medial border of the pectoralis minor, the second part is behind the pectoralis minorand the third part is between the lateral border of thepectoralis minor and the inferior border of the teres major.
(1) Superior Thoracic artery
(2) Thoracoacromial artery
A. Pectoral Branch
B. Deltoid Branch
C. Acromial Branch
D. Clavicular Branch
(3) Lateral Thoracic artery
It originates from the axillary artery and follows the lower border of thePectoralis minor muscle to the side of the chest, supplies the Serratus anterior muscle and the Pectoralis major muscle, and sends branches across the axilla to the axillary lymph nodes and Subscapularis muscle. In the female it supplies an external mammary branch which turns round the free edge of the Pectoralis major and supplies the breasts.
(4) Subscapular artery
E. Circumflex Scapular artery
It curves around the axillary border of the scapula, traveling through the anatomical triangular space. It enters the infraspinatous fossa under cover of the Teres minor, and anastomoses with the transverse scapular artery and the descending branch of the transverse cervical. It supplies muscles in this area.
F. Thoracodorsal artery
It travels inferiorly with the thoracodorsal nerve thoracodorsal nerveand supplies the latissimus dorsi.
(5) Anterior Humeral Circumflex artery
It is considerably smaller than the posterior, arises nearly opposite it, from the lateral side of the axillary artery. It runs horizontally, beneath the Coracobrachialis and short head of the Biceps brachii, in front of the neck of the humerus. On reaching the intertubercular sulcus, it gives off a branch which ascends in the sulcus to supply the head of the humerus and the shoulder-joint.
(6) Posterior Humeral Circumflex artery